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Petr Jandáček

127 La Senda Road, Los Alamos, New Mexico, 87544;

E-mail: jandacek@mesatop.com; p.jandacek@laschools.net

Lojze Arko

2 E-mail: ajarko@comcast.net


The publication of the monumental book "Veneti, naši davni predniki", by Bor, Šavli, and Tomažič(1) can be compared to nothing less than the igniting of a bonfire to light the darkness, a darkness which correctly describes the written history of the Slovenian people up to that point. It is not so much that their major thesis, i.e., the aboriginal nature of Slovenes and Slavs in general, has not previously been considered (indeed, previous thinkers are well documented), it is that it has never been put together so logically, with so much compelling evidence, such coherence, and such boldness. For the first time, it appears, Slovenes are allowed to write their own history without foreign domination.  It is not our purpose here to question or even supplement the main thesis - this we accept as now a given - but rather to look into some of the lesser aspects of their work to see if we, the eager and supportive amateurs, can fit together the small pieces which they left unattended.

One such small piece is the tantalizing suggestion that there appears to be a linguistic connection between the Slovenian and Basque languages (other languages are touched on as well, but we concentrate on the Basques). A few cursory examples are given in the book, enough to wet the appetite, but not enough to give strength to the argument. We have decided to look further into this question in the hope of shedding additional light on the matter. The tools at our disposal are meager, consisting primarily of the Basque,(2) as well as Slovenian,(3) and Czech(4) dictionaries. We compare the modern Basque language with the modern Slovenian and Czech languages, which immediately suggests that we have eliminated a whole segment of the comparison. Without doubt knowledge of the more antique forms of each language would be very useful since similarities, if they ever existed, are slowly erased with time. Nonetheless we hoped that enough evidence has remained to this day to allow a definitive statement on any linguistic connection.

It may yet be, of course, that modern techniques of DNA analysis will either prove or disprove anything we say here. These techniques, while still in their early stages, have the potential of being model free and definitive. We do not believe that they have yet arrived at their full potential, so that there is still room for other techniques, such as linguistic comparisons, to answer some questions. Should it eventually be proven via DNA that there is no connection between Basques and Slav peoples, however, we will be left with the mystery of the linguistic similarities which we hope to show below, are far beyond accidental. Perhaps the similarities in that case stem from an intermixing or a trade language.

Before launching into a linguistic comparison, it is tantalizing to speculate about the very name Basques. The Roman appellation for these people was Vascones, sometimes written as Vascani. It is easy to see how the betatism has transformed the "V" into a "B" to result in the modern word. But the occasional writing of Vascones as Vascani is curious. It does not take much imagination to transform the word into Vaščani, which immediately provides a link to Slovenian, or Venetic, language. It should be remembered that one of the major themes of Bor et al.(1) is that the distinguishing feature of the Veneti is their basic cultural unit, the Village. Might it not be possible that the Basques originally called themselves "The Village People" or Vaščani?

[Allowing ourselves one more bit of speculation regarding Roman writing, we look at the word Druids, or the wood people who worshiped trees on the British Isles. Since the Romans generally used the printed letter V whenever a U is called-for, it is very likely that they wrote DRVIDES for Druides. But might it not be so that in this particular case they really wanted to use the letter V? In that case we are talking about Drvides, which immediately suggests the word drva or drevo. The connection between the name Druids and the tree worship then becomes much more logical. Granted this is stretching things a bit, but it is food for thought.]

As we stated in our abstract, a cursory examination of the Basque language would suggest at most an accidental connection between Slavic and Basque. Indeed, we were prepared to abandon the project when one of us (PJ) noticed an unusually high correspondence among words, which surely would have already existed in antiquity. These include such words as relating to body parts, geographical features, agricultural terms, and the lexicon of hunters and gatherers in general. Our initial attention was particularly focused on the word gori and its combinations, which in Basque describe many items dealing with heat or burning, as well as items dealing with elevation, highest praise, high passion, and higher authority. Strangely enough, or perhaps not so strangely, this is identical to what is used in the Slovenian language. The indefinite verb "to burn" is in Basque actually erraustu, while words derived from gori refer perhaps more to heat. Nonetheless, the similarity is stunning. The word for flame is gar, which in Slovenian has been softened to žar. While gori is an adjective describing a burning item more correctly called goreči in Slovenian, the adjective goren has the Slovenian equivalent of najgorjši (supreme, exalted, most high), the indefinite verb goritu = ogreti (to heat), the adverb gora = gori (up or upward), etc., etc.  In Slavic languages the word gora also refers to a mountain, which, like a fire, rises upward to the sky. This appears to have been altered in Basque to mendi (most likely Latinized from montes), but the word for an apex is goraldi (vrh in Slovenian) thus retaining the root. Further we find that to elevate = goratu, while elevation = gorapen. It would seem much more than pure accident that two apparently unrelated languages (according to linguists) would use the identical root word to form words with very different meaning, and have the meaning of these words correspond exactly in the two languages. This spurred on a further examination.

To a much lesser extent these relationships exist in English as well. Thus elevation (height) and exalted one (highness) derive from the same word, while high passion can be viewed as related to burning only as a metaphor, as in burning passion. But the use of the same root word for heat, burning, high status, mountains, heights and passion are nonexistent in English, while both Basque and Slavic describe all these with the root word gori. [Quite aside, in the course of this search the large number of English words with Slavic derivatives, which do not have Latin or Germanic roots, surprised us]. Nor are they found in the Latin language, which many might consider as the link in the similarities between Basque and Slavic. Thus in Latin, e.g., up = sursum, fire = ignus, mountains = montes, etc.

When comparing Basque and Slavic it would be most useful to have a strong command of several Slavic languages, both the ancient and modern forms, since it may be that some languages have retained the ancient forms wile others were subject to change. At our disposal were only the Czech and Slovenian languages, but even with these the usefulness of a multi-language approach was evident, particularly when trying to unravel what appears to be only a vague connection in one language, but absolutely clear in another. The sum of our work is given in the Appendix with the words in alphabetical order. A few explanations of Basque are in order for a better appreciation of the comparisons. First of all, no Basque word begins with the letter R. Thus we find the word for river as erreka and not reka. The indefinite verbs have the -tu ending while in Slovenian they end in -ti. Thus we have zoritu, which means zoriti (to ripen). While in Slovenian the use of the article ta, as in ta prvi, is fading from use, it is still used in Basque except that it is postpositional, as in mamata, or pivoto (i.e., the mother and the beer). Postpositional articles are also found in Bulgarian and Macedonian languages. We also point out again the interchangeability of letters b and v due to betatism. With this prelude we welcome the reader to peruse the appendix.

Most of the comparisons in the appendix are self-explanatory. One could write a story about many of the words but it is not our intent to belabor these. We would include one, however, namely the word for knee (belanue), which bears only a slight resemblance to the Slovenian word koleno. The interesting fact is that in both Basque (belaunaldi) and in Slavic (pokolenje) the word for generation stems from the root word for knee. While this occurs in Latin as well where genu (knee) and genus (ancestry) are related, one must ask just who borrowed what from whom. Ancient pre-Roman Venetic inscriptions clearly indicate that the word for wife (or woman) is gena, later softened into the Slovenian word žena (a clear reference to ancestry). We dare say the Romans did much borrowing. At the very least the knee connection indicates that the Basque language did not originate in a vacuum, as some would have us believe, but had contact with the rest of Europe from the beginning.

It is already clear from many of the words in the appendix that the Basque words consist of root a word to which one attaches adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, etc. to form new words. This is entirely similar to the way Slavic words are constructed. We gave an example in the abstract of črešnja (čer - ješnja, food with a rock), but we could give countless other examples, such as iskra (iz ker-a, from a rock). We are assured by Prof. Rozalyn Frank of the University of Iowa that this type of word formation is not common, but it does occur in both Basque and Slavic.

It would be most gratifying if one could determine a fingerprint, which would be a foolproof method of identifying a Slavic language. The problem, which exists now is that it is difficult to determine just who borrowed from whom in the course of language development. Such is the case, for example, with counting from one to ten. Nearly all languages have very similar words for these numbers. The knee-jerk reaction of historians is to give credit to the Romans or perhaps the Indus people. But is this really so? A careful scrutiny of the words for numbers reveals this interesting fact: In ALL Slavic languages there occurs a rhythm and rhyme (and reason) to the counting system. The numbers are paired thusly: ena-dva, tri-štiri, petest, sedem-osem, devet-deset. If the wording is slightly changed, e.g., to seden by the Primorci, the rhyme is maintained by also changing osem to osen. Indeed, the rhyme is even more pronounced if one realizes that the word for 5 (pet) comes from pest (i.e., fist, containing 5 fingers. Even in English the words five and fist are related). Thus we could say pestest. Perhaps šest comes from še pest, or, more than a fist. This would give meaning and reason to the words. No such reason exists in other languages.

Rhyme and reason in the numbering system are not found in English, Latin, Germanic, or any of the Romance languages. We are tempted to suggest that the counting originated among Slavic peoples, and that the Romans borrowed the words. The subtleties of the rhyme eluded the borrowers. Whatever the case, we suggest that the rhyme in the counting system may be perhaps the fingerprint we are looking for. It is found in Old Prussian so that we are confident in stating that these were a Slavic people. By contrast, the rhyme is not found in the Basque language, which at first glance would seem to negate their Slavic connection. However, in view of the many similar antique words, one can also reach a different conclusion, namely that the split, if such was the case, occurred even before the dawning of the numbering system. Or, perhaps, the two tribes mixed in antiquity due to trade, heavily borrowing words from each other. Whatever the case, the Basques do not appear as unique as some historians would have us believe.

As a final thought, there is no doubt that at the time of the Venetic era (say 1000 B.C.) the numbering system was already in existence. It would be most illuminating to get an idea of their words for numbers. We have not been able to find these in any books on the Veneti. If such can be found, and if a rhyme exists, we dare say that this would be a substantial contribution as proof of their Slavic origins.


1.        Bor, Matej; Šavli, Jožko; Tomažič, Ivan: Veneti naši davni predniki, Editiones Veneti, Ljubljana 1989.

2.        Aulestia, Gorka; White, Linda: Basque-English --- English-Basque Dictionary, University of Nevada Press, Reno, Nevada, 1992.

3.        Grad, Anton: Angleško-Slovenski slovar, Univerzitetna Knjižnica, Maribor, 1999.

4.        Resepka, Miroslav: "Anglicko-Ceski --- Cesko-Anglicki Slovnik", Fin Publishing, Olomouc, 1998.



Številni učenjaki so poskušali pravilno uvrstiti baskovski jezik med ostale evropske jezike. Ti poskusi so bili v glavnem neuspešni. Nekateri so domnevali, da so Baski potomci nekdanjih kromanjoncev, ki so živeli tam pred trideset tisoč leti. V knjigi "Veneti, naši davni predniki" so Šavli, Bor in Tomažič opozorili na povezave med Baski in Veneti, našimi slovanskimi predniki. Navedli so nekaj primerov podobnih besed v obeh jezikih, niso pa tega globlje obdelali. Nepopustljivo prepričanje nekaterih zgodovinarjev, da so Slovani prišli v Evropo šele v 6. stoletju, za kar pa nimajo zadostnih dokazov, je preprečevalo raziskovanje povezav med Baski in Slovani. Midva sva globlje raziskala jezikovne povezave med tema ljudstvoma in ugotovila zanimivo dejstvo. Medtem ko je na splošno videti zelo malo podobnosti med tema jezikoma (videti so skoraj naključne), pa opazimo, da so podobnosti številne, ko se omejimo na besede, ki so lahko obstajale v daljni preteklosti (morebiti že v kameni dobi). Podobnosti najdemo ne le v besedah, temveč tudi v besedni zgradbi. Na primer, kot v slovanskih jezikih tudi v baskovščini tvorimo nove besede iz osnovnih besed (primer: črešnja = čer ješnja = jed s koščico). Ali pa: baskovska pomanjševalna končnica -ška je podobna slovenski. Predstavila bova še številne druge primere, pa tudi povezave z drugimi jeziki. Nagibava se k temu, da bi dala prav Šavliju, Boru in Tomažiču, da so Baski in Veneti podobni ljudje, ki so se ločili že v davnini.



(Examples of Basque - Slavic Linguistic Similarities)


We present below a comparative instrument designed to illustrate similarities between Basque and Slavic languages. The primary search was done by one of us (Petr Jandáček), a Czech, thus it often occurs that Czech words seem more in concert with Basque. However, as a rule, Slovenian words tend to retain a closer comparison.

We again point out that the letters B and V, as well as P and F are often interchangeable. M and N are often replaced with each other as are the velars H, K and G. The dentals C,Č, S,Š, Z,Ž are all mutually interchangeable. The letter X is pronounced as Š, while TX is equivalent to Č. While in Slavic languages the letter R often serves as the sixth vowel (pronounced "er"), to the point where some words contain no vowels at all, Basque words can never begin with the letter R nor even with a consonant cluster such as "sl", "st", "pr". Thus, for example, roditi becomes erditu, while reka becomes ereka. In a similar vein, regarding consonant clusters, sredi becomes asterdi. The Basque indefitnite verbs end in -tu, while in Slovenian they end in -ti.



Basque                                  Czech                                    Slovenian                             English





abarka                                    obuv                                      obuvalo                                Footwear  (shoe)

abeltalde                               stado                                     čreda                                     herd (animals)

aberastasun                         bohastsvi                             bogastvo                              wealth

abere                                     zver                                        zver                                        animal, beast

abestu                                   pjet                                        peti                                        to sing

abesti                                    pjesem                                   pesem                                    song

abio, arabi, ahabi                 jerabina                                 brusnica                                               cranberry

abian                                     aby                                        da bi                       so that, consequently

abizen                                    zvan                                       naziv                                      name, appellation

ahalke                                    hanba (pohana)                   sramota                                 shame

aharratu                                hadati se, hudrat                 karati                      to argue, to reprimand

ahate                                     kachna                                  (raca)                                     duck (water fowl)

aho                                        huba                                      gobec                                    mouth

ahotz                                     hlas                                        glas                                        voice

ahuntz                                   koza                                       koza                                       goat

ahunzbizar                            kozi bouz                              kozja brada                           goatee

ahunztalde                            kozi stado                             kozja čreda                           herd of goats

ahuna                                    jehne                                     jagnje (kozliček)   a small goat (a goat lamb)

ahutz                                     lic                                           lice                                         cheek

angira                                    uhor                                       jegulja                                   eel

aipu                                       slava                                      slava                      glory (SL not allowed in                                                                                                                                  Basque)

aita                                         tata                                        ata                                          dad (father)

aitaxo                                     otecko                                   očka                                       daddy

aitxe                                       otec                                       oče                                         father

aizkora                                   sekyra                                   sekira                                     axe

akastsu                                 kazni                                      pokvarjen                             spoiled

akastu                                   kaziti                                      kvariti                                    to spoil

akais                                      kaz                                         hiba                                       fault, flaw

aketz                                      kanec                                     merjasec                                               wild boar

al                                            li                                             ali                        perhaps used with questions

alabaina                                ale bajo                                 al tako (seveda)                   but of course

alatu                                      klyti                                       kleti                                        to curse

(Basque words may not start with a consonant cluster)

albo                                       bok                                        bok                                        side (hip)

alboko                                   pobočnik                              pobočniK                             side kick, partner

aldapagora                           pahorek                                 navzgorje                              slope

aidaratu                                 edejiti                                    vandrati                              to leave, to wander

aldiz                                       ale                                          ali                  however, although, nevertheless

alor                                        role                                        izoralo polje             field prepared for sewing

ama                                        mama                                     mama                                     mother

anitz                                       moc                                        mnogo                                   much, many

aniztu                                    množiti                                  množiti                                  multiply

apal                                        police                                    polica                                    shelf

apar                                       para                                       para                                       steam

apez                                       papež                                     papež                                  high priest, pontiff

apo                                        žaba                                       žaba                                       frog, toad

apo                                        kopyto                                  kopito                                    hoof

arazo                                      prace                                     poklic, (garati?)            job, work, occupation

arbi                                        repa                                       repa                                       turnip

arlo                                        role                                        polje (za oralo)                     farm field

arrakala                                 rokle                                      razpoka                                 crevice, canyon

arrama                                   ramus                                    rjovenje                                 loud animal noise

arrano                                    orel                                        orel                                        eagle

arrultza                                  vejce                                      jajce                                       egg

arrazoi                                   rozum                                    razum                                     reason, sense

arrazoldun                            rozumny                                razumni                                 rational

artalde                                   stado                                     čreda                                     flock of sheep

asaba                                     osoba                                    oseba                                    ancestor/person

ase                                         syty                                       sit                                           full, satisfied

asegabeki                             sobecky                                pohlepno                              greedily

asekada                                 sytost                                    sitost                                     satiety, fullness

aska                                       jesle                                       jasli                                        manger, crib

askatu                                   pustiti                                    spustiti                                  to free, to liberate

aski                                        dosti                                      dosti                                      enough, plenty

askotan                                 častokrat                               čestokrat                               often, many times

astar                                      osel                                        osel                                        donkey

astredi                                   sreda                                     sreda                                     Wednesday

asti                                         časi-často                             često                         times, often, periodically

asto                                       osel                                        osel                                        ass, donkey

asturu                                    osud                                      usoda                                    fate, fortune

ata (ate)                                 vrata                                      vrata                                      gate, door

 (Basque words cannot start with a consonant cluster)

atexka                                    vratečka                                vratca                    small gate (Basq  X = Š)

atoitu                                     chytiti                                    ujeti                                       to catch, grab

atzapar                                  škrabat                                  krempelj                                claw

atzaparketa                           škrabanina                            krempljati (praskati)            scratching  (noun)

atze, atzeko                           zadek                                     zadaj                      back part, bottom of body

atzealde                                 zada                                       odzadaj                  posterior part, back

aulk                                        stolek                                    stolček                                  small chair

 (Basque                words cannot start with a consonant cluster)

aupa                                      hopla                                     hopla                     exclamation used when                                                                                                                                    lifting heavy weights

aurre                                      pred                                       pred                                       before

aurenik                                  prvni                                      najprej                                   first of all

ausiki                                     kousati                                  pokusiti                                 to bite

autzapez                                               knez                                       knez                                       mayor, lord

aza                                         zeli                                         zelje                                       cabbage

azken                                     končen                                  konec                     conclusion, ending

aztore                                    jestrab                                   jastreb                                   hawk




ba                                           ba                                           ba                           exclamation of irony

babespe                                bespečnost                          brezskrbnost        security, protection, refuge

bada                                      batak                                     potem                                    so, well, then

baietz                                     bajo                                       da tako                                  yes, so, yes indeed

baiezko                                  bajeto                                    da tako                                  affirmative consent

bainu                                     nanja                                     banja                                     bath

baizera                                   bažene                                   tak že ne                exclamation expressing                                                                                                                                    doubt or hesitation

bake                                       pokoj                                     pokoj                                     peace, tranquility

bakeune                                pokojne                                 pokojno                                peaceful

balanka                                 paka                                       vzvod                                    lever, crowbar

balazta                                   uzda                                       uzda                                       bridle

bapateko                               prutko                                   nenadno                                               sudden

barabil                                   varle                                                                                     testicle

baranda                                 zabradli                                 zabran?                                 banister

bare                                       mir                                          mir                                          calm

barne                                     vnitr                                       vnotraj                                  interior

barreka                                  rechtat se                              režati                                      laughing

barrenbake                           vnitrni pokoj                        notranji mir (pokoj)             inner peace

basa                                       pusty, prosty                       divji (prosti?)                wild, primitive, rustic

basabere                                               zpustia zver                          divja (prosta) zver               wild beast

behi                                       bejk, byk,                              bik                                          bull, cow, bovine

behiki                                    bejči (hovez)                        goved                                    beef

behixka                                  kravička (samička od Bejčka)   kravca                             little cow

belar                                      bylina (trava)                       trava                                      grass

belaunue                               koleno                                   koleno                                   knee

belaunaldi                             pokoleni                                               pokolenje                              generation

belaunikaketa                       pokleknuti                            poklekniti                              genuflect

beretu                                    brati                                       grabiti                                    to take, seize

beretzakotu                          zabrati                                   zagrabiti                to monopolize, seize

berga                                     palka                                      bergle                                    rod, club stick

berho                                     vedro                                     vroče                                     heat, hot

bertz                                      džber                                     čeber                                     bucket, pail

                               (Since Basque words cannot begin with a consonant cluster, the TZ is at the end)

beste                                     ješte                                       še tako                               another as much as

besuts                                   bosi                                       bos                               naked arm, barefooted

bete                                       nabyjet                                  nabiti                         to fill, to load -as a gun

beti                                        veky                                      veki                                always, ages, eternity

betiko                                    vecne                                    večno                                    eternal perpetual

betikotu                                zvečniti                                 poveličati                   immortalize, perpetuate

beti-betiko                            veky-veku                            vekov veke                           for ever and ever

bezpara                                 včera                                     včeraj                                    yesterday

biak                                        oba                                        oba                                        both

bide                                       vede                                      veda (vidnost?)               path, that leads to a                                                                                                                                             solution

bidexka                                  cestička                                 cestica                                   path

biga                                       byk                                        bik                                          young cow - bull

bilo                                        vlas                                        las, dlaka                               hair

biluzgorri                              vlasoholi                               plešast                                  bald

biratu                                     viriti                                       vrteti                                      to spin

birikatu                                  vrteti                                      vrteti                                      rotate

bizar                                       vouz                                      brada                                     beard

bizi-bizi                                  živo-živi                 živi-živi  ?                             very lively

bizinahi                                 životni nehi                          hrepenenje                           life's desires

bizkar                                     višks                                      višek                      high point, high location

bor-bor                                  var-var                                  vrenje                    soind of boiling water

borda                                     bouda                                    koliba                                    hut

borobil                                  boulovi                                 okrogelj                                 round

boroka                                   bitva, bitka                           borba                                     battle

bost                                       pet (from pest)                     pet                                         five

bota                                       bota                                       škornji                                   boot

botatxo                                  botička                                  škornjiček                             small boot

botila                                     butylka                                  butelka                                  bottle

brastada                                               prašteni                                 udarec                                   sudden blow

briska                                    broskev                                 breskev                                 peach

buru                                       vrch                                       vrh                                         top, summit

buruzabal                              vrch zavality                        širokoglav                            broad headed

buruzorotz                            vrch ostry                             ostrovrh                                having a pointed top




daratulu                                vrtak                                      vrtalnik                                  drill

dardaratzu                            trasti                                      tresti                                      to shake, vibrate

denen                                    denni                                     dnevni                                   common, daily

dexente                                 dost                                       dosti                                      enough

domagarri                             domačneni                            udomačeni                            tamed




eden                                      jed                                          strup                                      poison, venom

edoski                                   dojiti                                      dojiti                                      to milk

egin                                       čin                                          stvar                                      action, creation

elekatu                                  kecati                                     klepetati                                to chat

elkotu                                    lakotit                                    lakomen                           to become a miser

emeki                                     mekky                                    mehko                                   softly

epelki                                     teply                                      toplo                                      warm

erabide                                  robota, vyroba                                           formula, method or process of                                                                                                                       getting something done

erdi                                        stred                                      sredi                                      center

erditu                                     roditi                                      roditi                                      to give birth

 (Bsq words cannot start with R)

eritu                                       chorobiti                               shrometi                                               to get sick

erpe                                       drap                                       krempelj                                claw

erpekatu                                               drapati                                   praskati, krempljati              to scratch

erreka                                    reka                                        reka                                        river, creek

errekatxo                               rička                                       rekica                                     riverlet

erroi                                       vrana                                     vrana                                     crow

erroitz                                    rokle                                      reža                                        fissure, precipice

eskulabur                              skoupy                                  skopuh                                  stingy, niggardly

etxe (pronounced etshe)    chuše                                    hiša                                        house

ez                                           bez                                         brez                        prefix indicating exclusion

ezko                                       vosk                                      vosek                                    wax

ezpi                                        zub                                         zob                                         snake fang / tooth




futzegin                                 fučet, foukat                         pihati                                     blow




gaban                                    kabat                                     suknja                                   overcoat

gabezia                                  bez                                         brez                                        without, lacking

gaita                                      dudy, gaida (Slovak)          dude                                      bagpipes

gaitz                                       kaz                                         poč                                        flaw

gako                                      hak                                         hakelj                                     hook

galda                                     hut                                         taliti                                       smelting

galeper                                  krepelka                                prepelica                               quail

galtza                                     gate                                       hlače (gate?)                        pants, trousers

gar                                         žar                                          žar                                  flame, radiant heat

garaiago                                               horejši, horni                        višji (gorjši?)                        higher

garabi                                    jerab                                      žerjav                                     hoist, crane

garaitu                                   vyhrati                                  zmagati                                  to win, to triumph

garratz                                   horky                                     grenak                                   bitter

garun                                     razum                                     razum                                     brain, ration

gehiago                                 jinako                                    od tega                                  more, else

geruza                                   koža                                       koža                                       skin, crust

goi                                         horni                                      visoki (gorni)                       high

gora                                       nahore                                   gori (z)                            up with, upward, up

gorabehera                           nahoru-dolu                         gori-doli                                up and down

gorago                                  horejši                                   višji (gorjši?)                        higher

goragoko                              horni                                      gorni                                      higher

goragotu                               nahoru                                  povišati                                 to elevate further

goraldi                                   horejši priliv                         plima (zgorni priliv?)           high tide

goraldi                                   hory vrch                              vrh gora                          apogee of mountain

gori                                        hori                                        gori                                        ablaze, on fire

gori-goritu                            hori-horeti                            goreče                                   glowing with fire

gorantz                                  hornejši                                 navzgor                                 upward

gorantza                                               horejši                                   navzgor                                 towards the top

goranzko                               horasko                                 gorato                             regarding high things

gorati                                     hrdi                                        ohol                                       haughty, arrogant

goratu                                   zvednout nahoru                 povišati                                 to elevate, to raise

gordeleku                             hrad                                       grad                                       fortress, castle

gordin                                   hrozny, kruty, hruby           grozni, kruti, grobi               crude, cruel

gordindu                               horšiti                                    hujšati                                   to get worse

gordintasun                         hrubost                                 grobost                                 cruelty

goregi                                    priliš horejši                         previsoko                             too high

goren                                     horen, nejviši                       najvišji (najgorši?)              highest

gori                                        hori                                        gori                                        burning

gori-gori                                horiči (vašini)                       goreči                                 glowing - ardently

garratz                                   horky                                     grenak                                   bitter

gorroto                                  hroziti                                    groziti                             expressing hatred, ire

gorta                                      ohrada                                   ograda                                   stable, rink

gorte                                      hrad                                       grad                                       castle, palace

grausk                                   hryzat                                    grizati, hrustati                     biting sound

guren                                     hrana, hranice                      granica                                  limit, edge

gutizia                                   chut                                                                                      desire, craving




han                                        tam                                         tam                                         there, over there

handi                                     hodne                                    izobilje                         plenty, great quantity

handiarezko                          hodne                                    vrednost                                 value > quality/quantity

hanka                                    hnata                                     ud                                          limb (leg or arm)

hari                                        haras                                     nit                                          thread

haritz                                     dub                                        hrast                                      oak

harizko                                  haraskom                              (heklano?)                            made of thread

harrapakin                            chopit                                    zapleniti                      to catch prey, capture

harrapakin                            korist                                     plen                                       seizure of prey

harrapatu                              hrabati, chopiti                    grabiti                                    to grab, to rake

haur                                       harant                                    otrok                        baby, infant, child, brat

haze                                       zelen                                      zelen                                      green

herre                                      chromi                                   hromi                                     cripple, lame

herrestari                              ješter                                     plezač                                    reptile

hesohol                                 hol, hole                                               steber                                    stake, staff, post

hez                                         kost                                       kost                                       bone

higatu                                    hniti                                       gniti                                       to rot, decompose

hikatu                                    tykati                                     tikati                              familiar form of "you"

hirino                                     rynek                                     mesto                                    small city, town

hiru                                        tri                                           tri                                           three

hizkera                                   jazyk                                      jezik                                       language, tongue

hizkuntza                              jazyk                                      jezik                                       language

hoben                                    hanba                                    krivda                         fault, blame, culpability

hobendun                             hanebny                                               kriv                                        guilty, blamable

hobi                                       hrob                                       grob                                       grave, tomb

hobiratu                                pohrbiti                                 pogrebiti                               to bury, to inter

hortz                                      hryz, hrot                              zob (griz?)                             tooth, bite, point

horzkada                               hryznuti                                grizniti                                   bite, gnawing of teeth




ilar                                          hrach                                     grah                                       pea

inguratu                                ohraditi                                 ograditi                               to corral, surround

ipar                                        sever                                     sever                                     north

ipurdi                                     prdel                                      prda (slang)                          buttocks, butt

irabazpide                             robota                                   rabota                                    job, work

isats                                       ocas                                       sirc                                         broom plant, tail

ixo!                                         ticho!                                     tiho!                                       quiet!

izen                                        zvan                                       naziv                                      name, designata

izpitu                                     štipiti                                     cepiti                                     to splinter

izodura                                  strach                                    strah                                      fear, terror




jabal                                       slab                                        slab                                        weak

jalo                                         rojen                                      izvaljeno                               hatched

jende                                     lide                                         ljudje                                     people

jedexka                                  lidičky                                   ljudstvo                 common, simple people




kaj                                          pristav, molo                        kej (Croatian)              dock, pier, port, harbor

kaka                                       kaka (trus)                            kaka                                       excrement, feces

kako                                       hak                                         hakelj                                     hook

kalaka                                    klikaq, klatka                        kljuka                                    latch

kanika                                    kulička                                   frnikula                                  marble (toy)

kapazu                                   kapsa                                     torba                         pocket-bag, esp. of straw

karel                                       kraj                                         kraj                                         edge, rim, brim

karobi                                    krb                                         kamin                                fireplace, lime oven

karraskatu                             kousati                                  pokusiti                                 to bite

katar                                      kocour                                   maček                                    male cat, tomcat

kezulo                                    kozub - komin                      kamin                                     chimney

kipula                                    cibule                                    čibula                                    onion

kiribilatu                                kudrnatit                               kodrati                                   to curl, to spiral

klera                                       krida                                      kreda                                     chalk

klinkada                                polikani                                 pogolniti                               swallowing

koitz                                       -krat                                       -krat                       number suffix indicating                                                                                                                                                 multiplicity

kokada                                  krkat                                      kolcati                                   belch, burp

kokor                                     krk                                          vrat                                        throat, neck

kokorika                skrčeny                                 skrčen                           squatting, crouching

kokot                                     krk                                          vrat                                        neck

kola                                        klih                                         lim                                          glue

kolatu                                    kližiti                                      limati                                      to glue

kolokatu                                               kolebati                                 kolebati                                 to waver, to teeter

kopalet                                  kopa                                      koš                                       peck, small basket

kordel                                    koudel                                   vrv, konopec                        rope, twine

(Bsq OR is often replaced by OU)

korrok                                    kruh, kolo                             krog                                       circle, wheel

koskegin                               kousat                                   grizati (kavsanje?)       biting, sound of biting

koskor                                   kousek                                  košček                                   a piece, a bit

-kote                                      -krat                                       -krat                             suffix in multiplication

kresal                                     sul-sol                                   razsol                                     salt water

kukula                                   chochola                               greben                   (perhaps rooster's crest

                                                                                                                             deriving from kokoš)

kulukatu                                               kolebati                                 kolebati                                 to rock, to sway

kulska                                    klimbat                                  spanček                                short nap




labainada                              dlabanina                              razpoka                                 gash, slash

labekari                                 pekar                                     pekar                                     baker

labexka                                  pečka                                     pečka                                     small oven

laido                                      lajdat                                     žaliti                                  to insult, to neglect

landa                                     lany                                       polje                       field, prairie, plain, terrain

lapur                                      lupič                                      lopov                                     thief, robber

lasta                                       slamne (from slama)            slamno                                  of straw

lasto                                      slama                                     slama                                     straw

latoi                                       litina                                      bron (but to cast=litina)     brass

lauzkatu                                lezti                                        plezati                                    to scale, climb

liho, linu                                len                                          lan                                          flax

liska                                       lišejnik                                   lišaj                 moss or algae on rocks or trees

listoi                                      lat                                           lata                                       strip of wood, lath

losintxa                                 lichotit                                   prilizniti                                 to flatter, flattery

lur                                          role                                        zemlja                                    earth, land, field

luza                                        dlouhe                                   dolžina                                  long

luze                                        dloužene                               daljše                                     elongated




mailuka                                  mlatit                                     mlatiti                              to hit with a hammer

maitagarri                              mile, milovane                      dragi                             lovable, beloved, dear

makila                                    kyje                                        palica (palka)                        cane, stick, baton

peka                                       piha                                       pega                                      freckle

maldagora                             nahoru                                  navzgor                                 uphill, incline

marrantatu                            maroditi                                 prehlajen                     to be ill, sick with cold

maskor                                  mušle                                     školjka                                   sea shell

maskur                                  mozol                                     mazulj                                    callus

mataza                                   motouz                                  štrena                                 twine, hank, tangle

matazatu                               zamotati                                zamotiti                                 tangle, confuse

meheki                                   mekky                                    mehki                                     soft, weak

milikatu                                 malicherny                            zbirčen                          become spoiled, picky

min                                         milen                                      mili                                         dear, beloved

mixitxu                                   micka                                     mucka                                    cat (child talk)

mizkatu                                  mazleny, mazliti                    razvajen                          be spoiled, pampered

mortsa                                   mrož                                       mrož                                       walrus

moxkor                                  mit mužku                             namočen                               a lttle drunk

moga                                     mnoho                                   mnogo                                   extreme

musker                                  ješter(ka)                               kuščar                                   lizard




nabari                                    napadny                                               navadni                 obvious, evident, manifest

nabartu                                 nabarvit                                nabarvati               to paint with  many colors

nahastar                                               ješter                                     hujskar                                  agitator

nahi                                       nehy                                      naha                       desire, will, wish, craving

negutsu                                snežny                                  snežno                                  wintry, snowy

neurerra                                mera                                       mera                                       measurement

nokatu                                   tykati                                     tikati                           female familiar address

nolako?                                 no, jake?                               kakšno?                                what kind of?

nozitu                                    snašeti                                  nositi                                     to suffer, to bear




ogara                                     ohar                                       hrt                                          fast hound

ogaratxakur                          ohar čokl                               hrt                                          fast hound

orein                                      jelen                                       jelen                                       hart




papar                                     papat                                     prsa (papat for infants)      breast / suckle

peka                                       piha                                       pega                                      freckle




sakats                                    sukobity                                               grčevo                       knotty (wood or tree)

soineko                                 sukno                                    suknja                                   cloth, garment




taula                                      stol                                        stol                                        stool

taxu                                        tvar                                        način                                   aspect, appearance

teilaxka                                  strižka                                    stržka                                     small roof

tiratu                                      tahati                                     tirati                     to pull, yank, tug, goad into

tiro                                         strela                                     strel                                       shot

toka                                       tykat                                      tikati       address each other in familiar form

tualdi                                     plivati                                    pljuvati                                  to spit

txalupa                                  člun                                       čoln                                       a small boat

txanel                                     člun                                       čoln                                       a small boat

txantxa                                   švanda                                  čenča                         fun, joke, jest, nonsense

txarto                                     čertiti                                     črtiti                          to do evil, diabolical acts

txerren                                   čert                                        črt                               imp, demon, fiend, devil

txiza  egin                              chčit, chcat                           scati                                       to urinate

--txo                                       -čo                                         -čo                                        diminutive ending

txuri                                       čiry                                        čisto                                white, clear (as wine)

txurru                                     čurat                                      curati                                     to urinate




ubil                                        vir                                          vrtinec (se ovijalec)            whirlpool

ufatu - ufaki                          foukati                                   pihati                                     to blow air,  puff

uharka                                   pohar(ek)                              pehar                                     container

ukai                                        ruka                                       roka                        hand, forearm

(Bsq words cannot start with R)

ukabil                                    ruka bil                                  rokoboj                                 punch with fist

ukondo                                 loket                                      laket                                       elbow

untzi                                      člun                                       čoln                                       boat

(consonant cluster cannot start a word)

ur, urra                                  orech                                     oreh                                       nut

urate                                      vrata                                      vrata                           gate of canal, watergate

urdin                                      modry                                    modri                                     blue

usta                                       uzda                                       uzda                                       rein

utzi                                        pustit                                     pustiti                                    to let go




xabal                                      zavality                                 širok                                      wide, rotund

xora, xaro                              čaro-                                      čaro-                                      pertainig to magic

xahar                                      star                                        star                                        old

xukadera                               osuška                                  brisača (ki suši)                   towel

xukatu                                   sušiti                                     sušiti                                     to dry




zalixka                                    lžička                                     žlička                                     little spoon

zanga                                     noga                                      noga (šunka?)                      leg

zantu                                     znak                                       znak                                       sign, mark

zapaburu                               žabi pulec                             žabji paglavec                      tadpole

zapo                                       žaba                                       žaba                                       frog, toad

zatar                                       hadr                                       cunja                                     old cloth, rag

zati                                         čast                                        kos                                         part, piece

zatixka                                   častička                                 košček                                   small part

zeinu                                      znak                                       znak                                       sign

zela                                        sedlo                                     sedlo                                     saddle

zerrakatu                               režati                                      rezati (razrezati)                 to slice into pieces

ziho                                        sadlo                                     salo                                        tallow, grease, fat

zikiro                                      rež (žito)                                                            rye

zikoizki                                  sobecky                                skopuhi                                 miserly, stigily

zilar                                        stribro                                   srebro                                    silver

zilbot                                     život (archaic in Cz)            život                                      belly

zingira                                   jezero                                     jezero                                     lake

zirta                                        jiskra                                      iskra                                       spark

zitu                                         žito                                         žito                                         grain

zizarre                                    žizala                                      črv (žuželka?)                       earthworm

zizalkaka                                žizali kaka                                                                             worm feces

zizeilu                                    židle                                       klop                                       bench, chair

zizipaza                                  šišlavi                                    zezljati                                   lisp

-zko                                        -sko                                       -sko        Suffix for derivation from general                                                                                                                  to specific.e.g., Ljubljan-sko

zokondo                                               kout                                       kot                                         corner

zomorro                                 komar                                    komar                                    insect - mosquito

zoritu                                     zrati                                        zoriti                                      to ripen

zorizko                                   štistko                                   srečno                                   luck, lucky

zorrotz                                   ostrost                                  ostrost                                  sharpness, sharp

zozo                                       kos                                         kos                                         blackbird

zulatu                                    dolovati                                kopati (zajemati?) to dig a hole

zulo                                        dol, dul                                  jama (luknja)                         hole

zulodno                                 dolu-dno                               luknje dno                            bottom of hole

zutitu                                     vstati                                     vstati                                     to stand up

zuzitu                                     zničiti                                     uničiti                                    to destroy

zuzstrertu                              strustati                                zrasti                               to sprout, germinate


The most conspicuous constellation of words, which are similar in Basque and Slavic are the anatomical features of the paleolithic primitive Venuses (like the Venus of Vestrince). Examples:


Basque                                  Czech                                    Slovenian                                             English



kokor                                     krk                                          vrat                                                        neck

papar                                     papat                                     prsa (papat for infants)              breast/suckle

zilbot                                     život                                      život                                                      belly

motxin                                   močovod                              močilnik?                              genitalia/urethra

belaunue                               koleno                                   koleno                                                   knee

atzealde                                 zada                                       odzadaj                                                 back

alboko                                   bok                                         bok                                                        side/hip

ipurdi                                     prdel                                      prda (slang)                                         buttocks

hanka                                    hnata                                     ud                                                          limb

zanga                                     noha                                      noga                                                      leg

ukondo                                 loket                                      komolec (laket)                                    elbow


In addition, recall the cluster of words using the root word gori, discussed in the text.